**Title** **–** Water container 1.0 mL

**Subject** **–** Physics

**Aim** **–** To understand volume calculations.
Students are to sketch on paper a rough design, and
calculate the dimensions necessary to make the container
hold exactly 1.0 mL. The next lesson they design the container in
Tinkercad. Their design is printed between lessons. In the last
lesson they test their calculations using a scale and a Vernier-caliper. Afterwards
the sources of error are discussed.

**End product/outcome** **–** Students have designed and printed the container, then measured the amount of water it can hold, and understood the sources of error between the prediction and the measurement.

**Age group –** 14-15 year old middle school science students

**Group size** **–** 25 to 30; students are to work in groups of 2 or 3; this makes up to 15 projects to print; therefore prints will have to be printed outside teaching hours, and a print should not take longer than 30 min to print. Prints can be combined, so that five can be printed in one go during a night.

**Estimated time (60 minute hours)** – three lessons (it can be done in three lessons of 45min, but that is thight).

**Resources/equipment/materials/preparations** –

1st lesson : paper to sketch, pencils and such, and calculators

2nd lesson : computers to work via internet on Tinkercad tablets like iPads can be used, but with limited performance. For instance, one cannot enter exact dimensions.

Between lessons 2 and 3 : ample time on 3D printers

3rd lesson : scales, pipettes to add water, Vernier-caliper to measure hole size.

**Content/instructions ( how**

**to do it)**– See student material MS Powerpoint presentations Watercontainer lesson 1.pptxgives introduction to project and to Tinkercad Watercontainer lesson 2.pptxshort overview of lesson Watercontainer lesson 3.pptxshort overview of lesson, incl . discussion on errors

**Keywords/tags** –
#3D design; #3D printing; #volume calculations; #measurement error

**Sources for inspiration** –

**Suggestions for student** **evalution** **/ marking** –
1) maximize mark depending on volume formula chosen :
using a cube, score is at most 60% of maximum
using a half sphere, score is at most 80% of maximum
using an inverted pyramid of more complicated shape, score can reach 100%

2) give points for

correct use of formula completing design on paper first correctness of 3D design in Tinkercad creativity of outside accuracy of measuring volume

**RED/GREEN (DO´s and Don´ts)** –

Make sure you have ample printing time. Size of watercontainer can be varied, but 1.0 mL with max. outside dimensions at 5cm allows short printing time…